Concrete Floors Flatness Surveying
There are two basic floor categories: random traffic or wide open and defined movement traffic. Currently, fewer than 1% of the floors constructed in the US are classified as defined traffic or super flat floors.
In very-narrow-aisle warehouses, forklifts travel 6-foot wide aisles between storage racks with the aid of rack-mounted rails or a wire guidance system embedded in the floor.
While moving down the aisles, these lift trucks can raise their forks to retrieve or place products at various levels. For these forklifts to perform as intended, defined-traffic floors must be extraordinarily flat and level, or high tolerance floors.
The warehouse floor is the all-important surface that affects the speed, efficiency and often the safety and movement of the distribution center operatives and their manually operated hardware.
ACI 302.1R-04, “Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction,” defines several classes of floors based on their intended use and the suggested method used for final finishing. Class 9 are super flat floors and require critical surface tolerances.
Profile quality is among the most important characteristics of any concrete floor. FF FL Numbers have been formalized in ASTM since 1987 (ASTM E 1155M) and in ACI since 1989 (ACI 117).
The FF/FL System provides the specifier, contractor, and owner with a convenient and precise method for communicating the profile requirements, for testing the results, and for equitably resolving any out-of-compliance work.
DUOMIT offer professional flatness surveying to owners, developers, contractors and end users who are looking for the best industrial concrete floor slab they can get.
DUOMIT use the latest in digital flatness testing equipment, designed and built in the USA, to check both Defined and Free Movement floors.
ASTM 1155 floor profiles (FF/FL) and joint stability measurements can be obtained with special Software. View results right from the phone or import into Desktop Report Generator to create professional reports for customers.
A streamlined App designed to provide the client with a suggested layout pattern when gathering measurement data in accordance with ASTM E1155-14 and E1155M-14.
Why Flatness is important
Random-traffic superflat floors should support traffic in all directions. They are typically required for gymnasiums, ice rinks, warehouses where air-pallets are used, and television or movie studios where camera dollies must operate.
Superflat floors generally exhibit FF and FL numbers above 50 in the direction of travel. They require specialized construction methods, and cost more to build than floors in standard warehouses, lightly trafficked industrial buildings, or commercial office buildings.
Proper floor flatness is essential for the following reasons:
- Operations are more efficient if lift trucks operate at max speed
- Poor surface regularity will cause excessive vibration on a lift truck and increase maintenance
- Reduced damage to stock
- Gives control on the general quality of a floor when constructed
- Safety, Health, and driver fatigue.
The most important category of industry where high tolerance concrete floor is essential is within aisles of high-density warehouses where defined path, very narrow aisles (VNA) trucks operate.
Contractor’s and Specifier’s Guide to the F-Numbers
A more detailed explanation of the FF/FL system will help you incorporate the power trowel system into your floor projects both quickly and easily.
|FF||Qmax, mm||FL||z, mm||Intended use|
|Conventional||25||4.6||15||20||conventional, non-special construction|
|Moderately Flat||35||3.3||20||15.7||foot traffic|
|Very flat||60||1.9||35||9||high-elevation, high-speed conventional warehouse|
|Super flat||80||1.4||50||6.3||TV studio, ice rink|